Versailles was approximately the price of a modern airport; it was an object of universal admiration and enhanced French prestige. Orry, the superintendent of French finance, was forced to reinstate the highly unpopular dixieme tax to fund the war.
At the Battle of Fontenoy on 11 MayLouis, accompanied by his young son the Dauphin, came under fire for the first time and witnessed a French victory over combined British, Dutch and Austrian forces.
With Fouquet dismissed, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation. Finally, a palace revolution in London, bringing the pacific Tories to power, and a French victory over the imperial forces at the Battle of Denain combined to end the war.
However, new powers were emerging on the European stage, particularly Russia under Peter the Great and his successor, Catherine I of Russia. His minister of the Navy and household of the King, the Conte de Maurepas, was in office the entire period. France, however, profited most from the settlement.
Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions— customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south.
He was wheeled to the throne room or carried to his carriage. Louis spent a lot of money on wars, and France went into deep debt because of him. On 8 SeptemberMontreal surrendered, bringing to an end French rule in Canada. Spain and several adjoining territories had a ruling king with issues complicating who would be next heir to the throne.
A French fleet in the Mediterranean defeated the British at the Battle of Minorca ofand captured that island. Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. His body was borne, amid the jeers of the populace, to the Saint-Denis basilica. The king required a different dress code for every event, depending on what time of the day it was and depending on the season.
The monarchy became increasingly isolated from the people and thereby assumed a decidedly mythical quality. Catholicism in France was always a three-way power struggle, between the Papacy, Crown and the Gallicans.
After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. The result was war in the Netherlands from toduring which Louis again demonstrated the effectiveness of French might. Once he almost drowned in a pond because no one was watching him.
This allowed them to take on official roles and serve the monarchy when necessary. For seven years, France was engaged in a costly war with constantly shifting alliances.
While Mazarin might have been tempted for a short period of time to marry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was absolutely against this; she wanted to marry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spainfor both dynastic and political reasons.
He was obliged to rule for the benefit of his people. Thereafter, Britain and Prussia held the upper hand, tying down the French army in the German states along the Rhine. His harshness and courage, despotism and stoicism, prodigious pride and passion for order, megalomania and religion, intolerance and love of beauty can be understood only as a function of the exigencies of governing.
The King was offended by her refusal and thereafter never shared her bed. He used fashion as a way to control the nobility and to keep an eye on them as another part of his social strategy. Nevertheless, the system of absolute monarchy emphasized the role of the king, and no monarch was more successful in creating the image of monarchy than Louis XIV.
Internationally, the time was ripe for a change in the balance of power. Belleville had to abandon Prague, with a loss of eight thousand men. He never forgave the Dutch and swore to destroy their Protestant mercantile republic.Louis was a major patron of architecture; he spent more money on buildings over the course of his reign than Louis XIV.
His major architectural projects were the work of his favorite court architect, Ange-Jacques Gabriel. Louis XIV's aggressive plans to expand France's borders in the area of the Rhine River resulted in a war with Austria and its allies, the Netherlands, Prussia and England, which were all major European powers.
Louis XIV, France's Sun King, had the longest reign in European history (). During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height, established a glittering court at Versailles, and fought most of the other European countries in four wars.
In Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, a harsh if logical resolution of the question. It was what his Catholic subjects expected of him, but it proved damaging to the economy and to France’s reputation.
May 03, · Louis XIV believed in forceful foreign policies. He fought in several wars for land, two of which were against the Dutch. He was successful only in the first one, but he managed to gain a considerable amount of territory during the second war.
Aug 08, · How successful was Louis XIV in achieving the objectives of his religious policies ? (24 Marks) Louis managed to achieve great success in his religious objectives during his personal ruleDownload